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Poisonous mushrooms contain a variety of different toxins, which may vary in toxicity. Symptoms of mushroom poisoning can vary from stomach problems to life-threatening organ failure or death. Severe symptoms are not always immediately after eating, often only the toxin attacks the kidneys or liver, sometimes days or weeks later.The most common consequence of mushroom poisoning is common gastrointestinal complaints. Most of the "poisonous" mushrooms contain gastrointestinal irritation to vomiting and diarrhea (sometimes hospitalization) cause, but usually no long-term damage. However, there are a number of recognized mushroom toxins with specific and sometimes fatal, effects:Alpha-amanitin (deadly: causes liver damage 1-3 days after ingestion) - The main toxin in the genus Amanita.Phallotoxin (causes gastrointestinal symptoms) - also poisonous AmanitaOrellanine (deadly: causes kidney failure within 3 weeks after ingestion) - The main toxin genus Cortinarius.Muscarinic (sometimes deadly: can cause respiratory arrest) - found in the genus Omphalotus.Gyromitrin (deadly: causes neurotoxicity, gastrointestinal symptoms, and the destruction of blood cells) - The main toxin type Gyromitra.Coprine (causes disease when used with alcohol) -. The main toxin in the genus CoprinusIbotenic acid (causes neurotoxicity) and muscimol (hallucinogenic) - The main toxin A. muscaria, A. and A. pantherina gemmata.Psilocybin and psilocin (hallucinogenic 'magic', 'psychoactive') - Client "toxin" in the genus Psilocybe.Arabitol (causes irritation of the gastrointestinal tract in some people).Bolesatine a toxin found in Boletus satanasErgotamine (deadly: affects the vascular system and may lead to loss of limbs and death): an alkaloid found in the genus Claviceps.Symptoms of mushroom poisoning vary, depending on the respective toxins.Alpha-amanitin: 6-12 hours, there are no symptoms. This is followed by a period of gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting and profuse watery diarrhea). This phase is mainly caused by the phallotoxins [6] and usually takes 24 hours. At the end of this second stage is when severe liver damage begins. The damage can even 2-3 days. Kidney damage can occur. Some patients require a liver transplant. Found [22] Amatoxins in some fungi of the genus Amanita, but also found in some species of Galerina and Lepiota. [10] The mortality rate ranges between 10 and 15 percent. [23] More recently, appears milk thistle or milk thistle the liver from amanita toxins and regrowth of damaged cells protect by [24] [25] suspended in a study of 60 patients death cap poison were 20 mg / milk thistle seeds kg per day given within 48 hours after consuming the deadly mushrooms. None of the patients died. [26]Orellanine: This toxin causes no symptoms for 3-20 days after ingestion. Typically, by day 11, the method renal failure [6] and usually begins symptomatic of Day 20 These symptoms may include pain in the kidney area, thirst, vomiting, headache and fatigue. A few species in the very large genus Cortinarius contain this toxin. People may have eaten the mushrooms Orellanine early symptoms and experience, because the mushrooms often contain other toxic substances besides Orellanine. [27] isolated a related toxin, which causes similar symptoms, but within 3-6 days from Amanita smithiana and some other toxic Amanita. [28]Muscarinic: muscarine muscarinic receptors stimulates the nerves and muscles. Symptoms include sweating, salivation, tearing, blurred vision, palpitations, and in high doses, respiratory failure. [29] muscarinic is found in fungi of the genus Omphalotus, especially the Jack o 'Lantern mushrooms. It is also found in A. muscaria, although it is known that the main effect of this fungus is caused by ibotenic acid. In some species Inocybe and Clitocybe can muscarinic species, particularly Clitocybe dealbata, and some red tube pore fungi are found. [10]Gyromitrin: stomach acids to convert gyromitrin monomethylhydrazine (MMH), a compound used in rocket fuel. It affects multiple body systems. It blocks the important neurotransmitter GABA, drowsiness, delirium, muscle spasms, loss of coordination, [6] tremors and / or convulsions what. It causes severe gastrointestinal irritation. Vomiting and diarrhea In some cases, liver failure have been reported. [6] Also, break red blood cells, jaundice, renal failure and signs of anemia. It is found in fungi of the genus Gyromitra. [16] A gyromitrin-like compound is identified in fungi of the genus packaging. [15]Coprine: Coprine metabolized similar to a chemical that disulfiram. Inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which is usually not harmful, unless the person alcohol in the blood while ALDH locked. This may occur when alcohol is just before or up to several days after ingestion taken the fungi. In this case, the alcohol can not be completely metabolized, and the person will experience flushed skin, vomiting, headache, dizziness, weakness, anxiety, confusion, palpitations, and sometimes difficulty breathing. Coprine is mainly found in fungi of the genus Coprinus, although similar effects after taking Clitocybe clavipes were observed.Ibotenic acid: This organic acid is converted to muscimol. The effects of muscimol vary, but nausea and vomiting are common. Confusion, euphoria, or sleepiness are possible. Loss of muscle coordination, sweating and chills are likely. Some people experience blurred vision, a sense of strength, or delusions. Usually have the symptoms after 30 minutes to 2 hours, and last for several hours. A. muscaria, the "Alice in Wonderland" mushroom is known for causing the toxic / hallucinogenic properties of muscimol, but A. and A. pantherina gemmata also contain the same compound. [10] While normally self-associated deaths associated with A. pantherina, [14] and the use of a large number of these fungi is likely to be dangerous.Psilocybin: This compound is converted into psilocin when ingested. Symptoms begin shortly after ingestion. The effects include euphoria, visual and religious hallucinations and increased perception. However, some people, symptoms anxiety, agitation, confusion, and schizophrenia-like. All symptoms usually pass after a few hours. Some (but not all) members of the genus Psilocybe contain psilocybin, like a Panaeolus, Copelandia, Conocybe, Gymnopilus and others. Some of these fungi also contain baeocystin that have effects similar to psilocin.Arabitol: A sugar alcohol, mannitol similarly that no damage caused in most people it is caused in some digestive tract. It is found in small amounts in oyster mushrooms and considerable amounts in Suillus species and Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca (the "false chanterelle"). [30]Some mushrooms contain less toxic compounds and therefore not seriously toxic. Poisoning by these mushrooms may respond to treatment. However, presence of certain types of mushrooms, such as Amanita, very potent toxins and are very toxic, so even if the symptoms are treated promptly mortality is high. With some toxins, death within a week or a few days occur. Although a liver or kidney transplant to save some patients a complete organ failure, in many cases there are no organs available. Patients who have been hospitalized and receive aggressive supportive therapy almost immediately after ingestion of amanitin-containing mushrooms, a mortality rate of just 10%, while the 60 or more hours of ingestion admitted 50-90% mortality


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